Poor dietary intake increases chronic disease risk, and poor sleep is thought to influence diet. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effect of sleep health on dietary intake in adults. Intervention studies were included that modified sleep and reported dietary outcomes. Five databases were searched (November 2017), records were screened, 39 full texts assessed and 20 studies included. Following risk of bias appraisal, extracted data were narratively summarised and a sub-group of studies meta-analysed to determine the effect of sleep interventions on diet. All interventions reduced sleep duration: 17 assessed effect of <5.5 hours sleep (partial sleep restriction), three assessed total sleep restriction on diet. Dietary outcomes reported were energy intake (EI) (n=20 studies), carbohydrate, fat, protein intake (n=16 each), single nutrient intake (n=2), food types (n=1). The meta-analysis indicated that partial sleep restriction results in higher EI in intervention compared to control, (SMD 0.365; 95%CI 0.206,0.524; p<0.001), with a mean difference of 203.8kcals (95%CI 112.3,295.2; p<0.001) in daily EI, and higher percentage of energy from fat, protein, carbohydrate (Fat: SMD 0.334; 95%CI 0.158,0.509; p<0.001, Protein: SMD 0.295, 95%CI 0.119,0.470, p=0.001, Carbohydrate: SMD 0.219, 95%CI 0.044,0.393, p=0.014). Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between other domains of sleep health and diet.